- Hagan, Susan. “The Marshmallow Study Revisited.” University of Rochester. 11 Oct. 2012. Web. 25 Sept. 2015.
Background: This article discusses the methodology and results of Celeste Kidd’s reinvention of the Marshmallow Study. It demonstrates how children were able to make rational decisions based on the probability of reward.
How I Used It: This article reinforces my hypothesis that experiences and environmental impact have significant impact on a person’s ability to exhibit self control and delayed gratification. It also demonstrated how self control can be manipulated by introducing reliable and unreliable environments to the study. Trust in the future reward is essential to delaying gratification.
- Gannon, Megan. “Twist on ‘Marshmallow Test’ Shows Environment Affects Self Control.” LiveScience. 11 Oct. 2012. Web. 25 Sept. 2015.
Background: This article discusses the role of trust versus innate self control. It discusses the origin of Kidd’s decision to study the Marshmallow Test (she was at a homeless shelter and knew that the children there would have no self control because of the environment). It also discusses how children with absent fathers scored the lowest in self control.
How I Used it: It is fascinating that those children with the least amount of trust (absent fathers, homeless environments) are those that score the lowest in self control and delayed gratification, strengthening my hypothesis that trust and confidence are essential beliefs to be successful. These children had little faith that the adults would deliver on their promises, thus they live in unreliable worlds.
- Clear, James. “40 Years of Stanford Research Found That People With This One Quality Are More Likely To Succeed.” Behavioral Psychology. 15 Apr. 2015. Web. 25 Sept. 2015.
Background: This article discusses the Marshmallow Study and the subsequent Kidd Study and states that the ability to delay gratification is critical for success in life. This article states that delaying gratification and self control can be learned and applied.
How I Used It: This article has four main ways to teach self control, which I analyzed in my research paper. It also reinforces my theory that self control is not an innate trait, and can be influenced by environment and experiences.
- Michaelson, Laura. “Delaying Gratification Depends on Social Trust.”Frontiers. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Sept. 2015.
Background: This article analyzes that impact of social trust on self control and delaying gratification. The scientists conclude that people are less willing to wait for rewards when dealing with others they consider untrustworthy.
How I Used It: This study was the first causal link of social trust in the ability to delay gratification. There must be a reward at the end to have someone cognitively choose to self control. The study raises looks at early interventions of at risk children (homeless, fatherless) and how providing trust and confidence will affect their ability to delay gratification. Social trustworthiness could address juvenile crime and drug addiction and improve behavior. I used this to support my thesis that social trust is essential to delay gratification.
- Lickerman, Alex. “Delaying Gratification.”Science306.5695 (2004): 369l. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.
Background: This article discusses why self control succeeds or fails through a “hot or cold” system. The cool system is cognitive in nature , and reflective. The hot system is impulsive and emotional. The article talks about brain activity and that people with low self control had different brain patterns than people with high self control. It discusses how some people are more prone to hot emotional triggers.
How I Used It: This article has a neurological basis for the ability to delay gratification which I find very interesting. This article suggests that people are born with either cool or hot cognitive systems. It also discusses whether or not delaying gratification can be taught, whether or not a person’s cognitive nature is cool or hot.
- Kort-Butler, Lisa. “Childhood Maltreatment, Parental Monitoring, and Self Control among Homeless Young Adults.” University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 1 Dec. 2011. Web. 22 Oct. 2015.
Background: This article examines the link between childhood maltreatment and negative social outcomes, especially in homeless young adults.
How I Used It: My thesis is further supported by this study that states that lower self control is directly linked to lower parental monitoring and earlier age at first abuse. Environment becomes forefront in whether or not a child displays self control, regardless of their natural propensity toward hot or cool cognitive systems.
- Turner, Michael. “The Stability of Self-control.” The Stability of Self-control. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct.2015.
Background: Low self control was found to be prevalent in criminal behavior, according to this study by
Gottfredson and Hirschi.
How I Used It: This paper applies the Theory of Crime to self control over time. I used it to demonstrate that the earlier the intervention with at risk children, the lower the possibility of juvenile delinquency. This study demonstrates that self control becomes relatively stable from the ages of eight to ten years old, which indicates the need to establish social trust in the early preschool and elementary ages.
8. Tarullo, Amanda. “Self Control and the Developing Brain.” Stanford University. 2009. Web. 23 Oct. 2015.
Background: This paper studies the development of self control in children. It demonstrates that early negative childhood experiences and lack of social trust directly result in a lack of self control.
How I Used It: Children display self control as early as three years of age. Whether or not a child develops the skills to cognitively self control depends on their environment. The brain is developing and early adversity negatively impacts the ability to delay gratification. This paper directly links negative self control to family environment, temperament, and experiences. The study suggested ways to counteract negative experiences, and lack of social trust, in early childhood. The amount of material I found in my research is staggering and supports my thesis.
- Makin, Simon. “To Predict Success in Children, Look Beyond Willpower.” Scientific American Global RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2015.
Background: This article argues that sometimes delaying gratification is not the best choice.
How I Used It: This article links self control and environment, suggesting that children in unreliable environments are likely to display impulsive behavior. They make the cognitive choice to be impulsive, suggesting that self control is not an innate quality but the result of socioeconomic and other environmental factors.
- Chandler, Michael. “Recent ‘Marshmallow Test’ Shows Impulse Control, Other Traits Are Not Fixed.” Washington Post. The Washington Post, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2015.
Background: This article talks about the University of Rochester study by Celeste Kidd, and how important reliable, trusting relationships in childhood are essential to developing self control.
How I Used It: This article talked about how stress in the environment can effect cognitive choices, and how children in chronic stressful environments can be impulsive and disruptive. The article supports my thesis that environment is a major factor in developing self control necessary for a successful and enriching life. It also supports my thesis that self control is not an innate trait.